VA Math
Topics:
Basic VA Math
The Bilateral Factor
Basic VA Math
Welcome to MindBoggling VA Math. Prepare yourself. Whoever thought of this was nuts! Seriously nuts.
That being said, Don’t worry! You’ll be fine! We’ll help you through VA Math step by step with a few examples. You should now feel very reassured and ready to face VA Math headon.
Let’s start at the beginning. What is VA Math? VA Math is the math used to combine the Military Disability Ratings of multiple conditions to give a veteran a single overall, or "combined", rating. In other words, if a person has more than one condition that is rated for Military Disability, then each of the ratings are combined (note that the key word here is “combined” not “added”) together using VA Math to give one overall rating. This single rating is then used to determine the exact type and amount of Military Disability Benefits the veteran receives.
VA Math is used for both DoD Disability and VA Disability.
So here’s how VA Math works. Each condition is a percentage of the disability of the service member. When combined together, however, each percentage is not a percentage of the entire service member but a percentage of what is left after other percentages have been subtracted. Got that? No? Well here’s an example:
Billy’s entire body is equal to 100%. Let’s say that Billy has three rated conditions. The first is a knee injury that is rated 30%. The second is a shoulder injury rated 20%. The last is a back injury rated 10%. Instinct would assume that the combined rating would be 60% (30 + 20 + 10 = 60). Unfortunately, that’s not the case with VA Math.
First start with the largest rating, 30%. This rating is then subtracted from the total body rating of 100%. Of the total body, now only 70% remains. So instead of simply subtracting 20 for the shoulder’s 20%, you can only subtract 20% of the 70 that is left, which is 14 (0.2 x 70 = 14). 70 minus 14 is 56. Now, since only 14 was subtracted from the total body, only 14 is added to the total combined rating. (Take a deep breath. Following along with the table below might help…)
Now for the last 10%. Again we can only subtract 10% of what is left of the total body. Thus, 10% of 56 is 5.6 (0.1 x 56 = 5.6). 56 minus 5.6 is 50.4. And again, since only 5.6 was subtracted from the total body, only 5.6 is added to the combined rating. So far, Billy’s rating is 30% + 14% + 5.6% = 49.6%.
Once all the conditions are counted, then the total combined rating is rounded to the nearest 10. 49.6%, therefore, equals 50% total disability.
Billy’s Condition Ratings 
Billy’s Total Body 
Billy’s Total Combined Rating 
knee = 30% 
100 
30% 
shoulder = 20% 
70 
30 
back = 10% 
56 
44 
Billy’s Final Total Combined Rating: 50% 
Got VA Math now? If your answer is No, grab a pencil and a piece of paper and walk through the example above yourself. It really does help to do the steps yourself. If your answer is Yes, great! There’s more to come.
Depending on the veteran, the list of conditions can sometimes be pretty long, and the VA Math becomes even more confusing. So, here’s a more complex example. Remember, simply follow the format from the example above and focus on one condition at a time.
Michelle’s VA Rating Decision looks like the following:
VASRD Code Condition and Rating
50245206 RIGHT ELBOW TRICEPS TENDONITIS
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
30% from 8/24/20066260 TINNITUS
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
20% from 8/24/20067346 GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISORDER (GERD)
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
10% from 8/24/20068516 LEFT ULNAR NEUROPATHY
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
10% from 8/24/20065284 STRESS FRACTURE OF RIGHT FOOT
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
30% from 8/24/20065003 CERVICAL SPINE DDD
Service Connected, Gulf War, Incurred
0% from 8/24/2006
VA Math time! Add the ratings from largest to smallest, regardless of the order they are listed on the Rating Decision, as follows:

Total Body 
Total Combined Rating 
Right Foot 30% 
100 
30% 
Right Elbow 30% 
70 
30 
Tinnitus 20% 
49 
51 
GERD 10% 
39.2 
60.8 
Neuropathy 10% 
35.3 
64.7 
Cervical Spine 0% 
31.8 
68.2% 
Michelle’s Final Total Combined Rating: 70% 
Got it now? Well, we’re sure you’re doing great, and if this were an elementary math class, we’d give you a smiley sticker, but there’s one final kink to put into the VA Math equation.
The Bilateral Factor
An additional 10% (the “Bilateral Factor”) is added to the VA Math equation if the veteran has both arms or both legs affected by two ratable conditions.
Note: A Bilateral Factor is added when both arms or both legs have a rated condition, even if one of them is only rated 0%.
So, if there is a right knee condition and a left knee condition that are both rated, then you get an additional 10%. The point of the bilateral factor is to take into account the fact that if you have a problem in your right leg, then a problem in your left leg will just make it worse and viceversa. It is easier to deal with a condition if the opposite part of your body can compensate. That being said, the conditions do not have to be identical for the bilateral factor to apply. If you have a left hip condition and a right foot condition, you still get that extra 10% since each condition affects the opposite lower extremity. If there are four conditions, one affecting each of the four extremities, then all four ratings are combined before the bilateral factor is calculated and added.
Here’s the VA Math catch: The key to adding that extra 10% is that it is not a 10% as though it were another condition, but is 10% of the combined rating of the two (or more) bilateral conditions. Once those conditions are combined, then 10% of that value is added, and the group of bilateral conditions is then treated as a single condition and combined with any other conditions. (We’ve already agreed that whoever thought of this was nuts.)
If a bilateral factor is added, always calculate the bilateral factor with its conditions first, then rank the remaining conditions (the combined bilateral conditions now count as a single condition) from highest rating to lowest and continue with normal VA Math.
So, if Sally has three conditions, a right foot rated 20%, a left foot rated 10%, and a back rated 40%, the foot conditions would be combined first since they are bilateral, even though the back condition is rated higher. The bilateral factor is then added to the combined rating of the foot conditions. That rating is rounded to the nearest whole number and then becomes the rating of a single bilateral condition that is then combined with the remaining back condition.
Condition Rating 
Total Body 
Total Combined Rating 
Right Foot 20% 
100 
20% 
Left Foot 10% 
80 
20 
Bilateral Factor (Add 10% of the total combined rating of both conditions, 28) 
28 

The process now starts over using the 31% total rating as the rating for the bilateral factors as a single condition. Combine starting with the highest (the back condition) first. 

Back 40% 
100 
40% 
Bilateral Conditions 31% 
60 
40 
Sally’s Final Total Combined Rating: 60% 
As you can see, since all ratings are rounded to the nearest 10 at the end, the bilateral factor may not be very helpful in raising the overall rating. In this case, Sally would have received 60% even without the bilateral factor. But in other cases it may make a critical difference. Consider the example below which is only slightly different from Sally’s case.
Marcus has three conditions, a right shoulder rated 20%, a left arm rated 20%, and a back rated 10%. The two arm conditions are combined first, and then the bilateral factor is added to their combined rating. That rating is rounded to the nearest whole number and then becomes the rating of a single bilateral condition that is then combined with the back condition.
Condition Rating 
Total Body 
Total Combined Rating 
Right Shoulder 20% 
100 
20% 
Left Arm 20% 
80 
20 
Bilateral Factor (Add 10% of the total combined rating of both conditions, 36) 
36 

The process now starts over using the 40% total rating as the rating for the bilateral factors as a single condition. Combine starting with the highest (bilateral arms) first. 

Bilateral Conditions 40% 
100 
40% 
Back 10% 
60 
40 
Marcus’ Final Total Combined Rating: 50% 
Without the bilateral factor Marcus’ conditions would have combined to 43% which rounds down to 40% final rating. So, not only did the bilateral factor get Marcus a 10% higher rating, it also pushed him to the 50% rating that qualifies him for CRDP. That’s huge! Regardless, if you have two bilateral conditions, you get that extra 10%. Happy Birthday.
That’s it. You have passed your VA Math class. If you haven’t already, go Find Your Conditions so you can practice your VA Math! Woohoo!